By 2020, there will be 50 to 100 billion devices connected to the Internet. Two domains of hot research to address these high demands of data processing are the Internet of Things (IoT) and Big Data. The demands of these new applications are increasing faster than the development of new hardware particularly because of the slowdown of Moore’s law. The main reason of the ineffectiveness of the processing speed is the memory wall or Von Neumann bottleneck which is comming from speed differences between the processor and the memory. Therefore, a new fast and power-efficient hardware architecture is needed to respond to those huge demands of data processing. In this thesis, we introduce novel high performance architectures for next generation computing using emerging nanotechnologies such as memristors. We have studied unconventional computing methods both in the digital and the analog domains. However, the main focus and contribution is in Spiking Neural Network (SNN) or neuromorphic analog computing. In the first part of this dissertation, we review the memristive devices proposed in the literature and study their applicability in a hardware crossbar digital architecture. At the end of part I, we review the Neuromorphic and SNN architecture. The second part of the thesis contains the main contribution which is the development of a Neural Network Scalable Spiking Simulator (N2S3) suitable for the hardware implementation of neuromorphic computation, the introduction of a novel synapse box which aims at better learning in SNN platforms, a parameter exploration to improve performance of memristor-based SNN, and finally a study of the application of deep learning in SNN.
Directeur de thèse : Pr. Pierre BOULET Rapporteurs : Pr. Michel PAINDAVOINE, Pr. Hélène PAUGAM-MOISY Examinateurs : Dr. Said HAMDIOUI, Pr. Virginie HOEL
Thesis of the team Émeraude defended on 14/12/2016